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Levels

Actualizado: 24 abr 2023

Iván Rolón


The piano and musical theory course is methodologically ordered according to the criteria that I detail below, through which the recommendations for the level of the works are prepared, their approach, the objectives of each stage, and the contents they include.

This course is divided into three levels, each of which contains four successive stages:

  • Basic (A1, A2, A3, and A4): intended for those who want to start studying piano or who have experience, but need to consolidate the basic concepts.

  • Intermediate (B1, B2, B3, and B4): intended for students who have developed autonomy in learning simple works and need accompaniment to solve medium-difficulty works.

  • Advanced (C1, C2, C3, and C4): intended for students who want to start or are undergoing professional musical training, for example, at the university, and need accompaniment in this process or wish to complement their training

The recommendation of the difficulty of the works for each level is based on the progressive and cumulative ordering of the contents arranged for each stage and the skills to be developed from them. Its approach is based on activities aimed at the progressive development of the proposed knowledge and skills, with the purpose of promoting conditions of enjoyment and dedication to tasks. Some of the most relevant activities related to the development of knowledge and skills ordered from the perspective of an initial approach include:

  • Instrumental exploration: intended to generate an experimental approach to musical elements.

  • Active listening: intended for the exercise of concentration, the identification of relevant elements, the musical development, and the first approach to the repertoire.

  • Marking the pulse: from listening, aimed at the development of the sense of the pulse, its identification, and rhythmic precision.

  • Singing: aimed at coordinating rhythmic skills, tuning, and articulation of the text.

  • Execution by imitation: from observation and intuitive recognition.

  • Recognition of musical elements: starting from the musical skills developed towards the identification of its components and notation.

  • Rhythmic reading: aimed at developing the ability to translate rhythmic writing into its execution.

  • Note reading: aimed at achieving fluency in melodic reading.

  • Rhythm and note reading: combining rhythmic and melodic reading skills.

  • Location of the notes on the keyboard: connecting them with its writing through specific exercises.

  • Fingering: through exercises designed to combine written and finger numeration with the note on the score and its location on the keyboard.

  • Execution from the score: combining the rhythmic, melodic, and technical skills developed.

  • Application of study techniques: in order to learn efficiently and with enjoyment.

  • Exercise of technical and expressive guidelines: destined to progressively optimize musical execution and interpretation.

  • Melody Reading of the works from the repertoire: with the purpose of developing the melodic hearing aspect and finding the musical meaning of the executed phrases.

  • Composition of rhythmic exercises: in order to understand rhythmic structures, create additional exercise material and prepare for musical composition.

  • Rhythmic Sight-Reading: To gain reading fluency and prepare for sight-reading.

  • Rhythmic dictation: intended to acquire the ability to write rhythms from listening.

  • Composing Melodic Exercises: To get started writing melodies, create additional exercise material, and prepare for musical composition.

  • Rhythm and note Sight-Reading: To gain fluency in music reading and prepare for sight-reading.

  • Musical analysis: identifying the musical elements in the works performed under the guidance of the teacher.

  • Performance at first sight: melodies for one and two voices after their analysis and rhythmic and melodic exercise.

  • Melody Sight-Reading: in order to correctly sing the notes from reading and prepare to write melodies to dictation.

  • Melodic dictation: to develop the ability to imitate and write melodies from listening.

  • Composition: for the development of creativity from the creation of own works.

  • Improvisation: in creative development from spontaneous execution.

The structure of levels responds, thus, to a growing and cumulative difficulty of the contents, but they can be worked from different skills that respond to a progressive order of theoretical and technical mastery. For this reason, in comprehensive training, after the progress made through basic skills, it is necessary to return to the contents of the previous levels to work on higher skills, given that it is necessary a development in the skills to play a musical work, write it down to dictation, or compose similar works, starting from the teacher's guide towards a gradual increase in autonomy. That is why the level of development expected for each of the levels, addressed for the first time, does not require a theoretical mastery of the elements or independence in the analysis or technical resolution, but its practical application through the repertoire and activities proposed together to the teacher. The development of higher skills will be reserved for a later approach, in successive stages. In this way, the contents presented serve as a guide for the recommendation of the difficulty of the repertoire, as well as for a subsequent study focused on analysis and composition.

The objectives and contents of each of the levels are the following:


Basic level objectives

Upon completion of the basic level, students will be prepared to:

  • Perform short, simple piano works from sheet music with technical and expressive proficiency, including efficient and healthy posture and hand position, rhythmic and melodic precision, proper use of fingering and pedals, and careful reading of articulation, dynamics, accentuation, and agogics.

  • Learn with autonomy, short and simple piano pieces, applying appropriate study techniques and strategies.

  • Read rhythms, and execute and sing accurately written melodies.

  • Analyze the rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and morphological elements of the works of the proposed repertoire with the help of the teacher.

  • Compose short and simple works for piano with the help of the teacher.

  • Improvise melodies, accompaniments, and small pieces from given formulas.

  • Identify by hearing basic rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic elements and write simple melodies from listening.

Contents of level A1

Rhythmic aspect

  • Pulse regularity.

  • Note values and rests in whole pulses (quarter note, half note, dotted half note, and whole note).

  • Ties.

  • Time signatures of 2/4, 3/4, and 4/4.

  • Anacrusic, thetic and headless beginnings.

  • Affirmative and suspensive endings

  • Syncopation

  • Rhythms for one and two voices.

Melodic aspect

  • Conventional notation system.

  • Notes in treble clef and bass clef, with up to two additional lines.

  • Melodies in fifth range.

  • Melodies for one and two voices.

Instrumental technique

  • Execution in fixed, closed position, one voice (in one hand) and two voices (in two hands).

  • Parallel octaves, thirds, and sixths between both hands in a fixed position.

  • Dominant and tonic pedal and fundamentals.

  • Chords with two sounds and triads of tonic and dominant with position change in the left hand.

  • Fixed accompaniment forms: arpeggios, waltz, barcarolle, ronda, Alberti bass.

  • Counterpoint melodies in a fixed position.

Expression technique

  • Articulations: non legato, legato, staccato.

  • Dynamics: mezzoforte, forte, mezzo piano and piano.

  • Agogics: moderato tempo, moderately fast and moderately slow.

Harmonic aspect

  • Intervals (quantitative aspect)

  • Inversion of intervals (quantitative aspect). Simple and compound intervals.

  • Types of melodic and harmonic movement.

  • Key of C major. Scale degrees.

  • Chords: tonic triad, dominant triad, and dominant seventh.

  • Triad and seventh chords: root position and inversions.

Musical forms

  • Phrase.

  • Parallel, contrasting, and double period.

  • Binary form.

  • Treatment of the text.

Contents of level A2

Rhythmic aspect

  • Review of rhythmic contents studied in A1.

  • Note values and rests in whole pulses and its division (eighth note, dotted quarter note, eighth note triplet).

  • Time signatures of 6/8, 9/8, and 12/8.

Melodic aspect

  • Review of melodic contents studied in A1.

  • Tone and semitone (diatonic and chromatic).

  • Accidentals: sharp and flat.

  • Key signature.

  • Enharmonic Equivalents.

  • Melodies in octave range.

Instrumental technique

  • Review of the contents of the instrumental technique studied in A1.

  • Fixed, closed, and open positions.

  • Change of position: opening, closing, thumb tack, move.

  • Scales by opposite and direct movement, one-octave extension.

Expression technique

  • Review of expressive contents studied in A1.

  • Articulations: staccattissimo.

  • Dynamics: hairpins.

  • Agogics: fermata.

  • Accentuation: accents (>).

  • Character: dolce.

Harmonic aspect

  • Review of harmonic contents studied in A1.

  • Intervals: minor, major, perfect, tritone. Inversions.

  • Minor and major chord (structure, construction, and identification).

  • Natural major and minor scale.

  • Keys: A minor, G Major, E minor, D minor, and F Major.

  • Tonic, dominant, and subdominant.

Musical forms

  • Review of musical forms studied in A1.

  • Theme with variations.

Contents of level A3

rhythmic aspect

  • Review of rhythmic contents studied in A1 and A2.

  • Note values and rests in whole pulses, division, and subdivision (sixteenth note, dotted eighth note. Binary and ternary rhythmic cells).

Melodic aspect

  • Review of the melodic contents studied in A1 and A2.

  • Accidentals: natural note. Precautionary accidentals.

  • Modulation in the repertoire.

  • Melodies in a range higher than the octave.

Instrumental technique

  • Review of the contents of instrumental technique studied in A1 and A2.

  • Scales by direct and opposite movement, two octaves long.

  • Parallel sixths and thirds in the same hand.

  • Two voices in the same hand in oblique movement (one in a pedal note).

  • Hands crossed.

  • Textures: monophony, homophony, heterophony, and polyphony.

Expression technique

  • Review of expressive contents studied in A1 and A2.

  • Basic articulations: legatissimo, legato, non legato, staccato, staccatissimo.

  • Dynamics: crescendo (cresc.), diminuendo (dim.).

  • Agogic: ritenuto (rit).

  • Accentuation: tenuto (-).

  • Ornamentation: appogiatura.

  • Character: cantabile.

Harmonic aspect

  • Review of harmonic contents studied in A1 and A2.

  • Theoretical intervals: diminished and augmented. Inversions.

  • Dominant seventh chord (structure, construction, and identification).

  • Functions: I, IV, V, VI.

  • Harmonic minor scale. Use of the dominant seventh chord in the minor mode.

  • Key of D Major, A Major, E Major, B Major, B minor, G minor, C minor, and F minor.

Musical forms

  • Review of musical forms studied in A1 and A2.

  • Ternary phrase.

  • Introduction and coda.

Contents of level A4

Rhythmic aspect

  • Review of rhythmic contents studied in A1, A2, and A3.

  • Irregular note groups (tuplets): duplet and triplet.

Melodic aspect

  • Review of the melodic contents studied in A1, A2, and A3.

  • Notes in treble clef and bass clef with up to five additional lines.

  • Simple (sharp, flat, natural) and double (double sharp and double flat) accidentals, key signature, bar, and precautionary accidentals.

  • Modulation: characteristic note and parallel keys.

  • Sequence.

Instrumental technique

  • Review of the contents of instrumental technique studied in A1, A2, and A3.

  • Reinforcement and correction of sitting posture, hand position, and fingering.

  • All major and minor scales (natural, harmonic, and melodic) by direct and contrary movement, two octaves long.

  • All types of position change.

  • Passage of the melody to the left hand

  • Independence of hands and fingers.

  • Relaxation of the arm, wrist, and hand.

Expression technique

  • Review of expressive contents studied in A1, A2, and A3.

  • Independent articulations between both hands.

  • Dynamics: pp-ff, reinforcing, independent dynamics between both hands.

  • Agogic: a tempo.

  • Accentuation: marcatissimo (^).

  • Ornamentation: double appoggiatura.

  • Character: expressive (espress.).

Harmonic aspect

  • Review of harmonic contents studied in A1, A2, and A3.

  • Melodic and Bachian scale. Use in the construction of melodies.

  • Chords: Major and minor triads. Diminished and dominant sevenths. Inversions.

  • Real major and minor keys.

Musical forms

  • Review of musical forms studied in A1, A2, and A3.

  • Binary and ternary form piece.

Intermediate level objectives

Upon completion of the intermediate level course, students will be prepared to:

  • Perform works for piano of intermediate difficulty and length with technical and expressive solvency and precision, adequate use of fingering and pedal, a careful reading of dynamics, accentuation, agogics, and articulation, with a character and interpretation appropriate to the style and the work, with consolidation in an efficient and healthy posture and position of the hand, and independence of hands and fingers.

  • Learn with autonomy, piano works of intermediate difficulty and duration, with the ability to identify problems and difficulties, analyze the causes, and apply appropriate techniques and strategies to solve them.

  • Resolve rhythmic, melodic, and technical difficulties in music reading and playing at first sight.

  • Analyze with autonomy the rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, and morphological elements of the works of the repertoire.

  • Compose works of intermediate extension and difficulty from the elements analyzed.

  • Improvise pieces and accompaniments based on formulas extracted from the analysis.

  • Write small pieces for piano from listening.

Contents of level B1

Rhythmic aspect

  • Review of rhythmic contents studied at the basic level

  • Thirty-second note. Dot and double dot. Binary and ternary rhythmic cells in simple and compound measures with denominators 2, 4, 8, and 16.

  • Tuplets: duplet, triplet, quadruplet, and quintuplet (without polyrhythms)

Melodic aspect

  • Review of the melodic contents studied at the basic level.

  • Notes in alto clef (C on the third line).

Instrumental technique

  • Review of the contents of instrumental technique studied at the basic level.

  • Parallel octaves in the same hand.

  • chromatic scale.

Expression technique

  • Review of expressive contents studied at the basic level.

  • Basic articulations (legatissimo, legato, non legato, staccato, staccatissimo) and other forms of articulation (marcato (marc.), tenuto (ten,-), portato, quasi legato).

  • Dynamics: macrodynamics (ppp-fff) and microdynamics (balancing and phrasing)

  • Agogics: rallentando (rall.) and accelerando (accel.).

  • Accentuation: forte-piano (fp).

  • Ornamentation: arpeggio, mordent, grupeto (modern style: classical and romantic era).

  • Richness and diversity of characters.

Harmonic aspect

  • Review of harmonic contents studied in the basic cycle.

  • Intervals: simple, compound, real, theoretical, inversion. Perfect and imperfect consonances, dissonances.

  • Triad chords: Perfect Major, Perfect Minor, Diminished, and Augmented. Seventh chords: dominant seventh, diminished seventh, half-diminished seventh, minor seventh, major seventh.

  • Circle of fifths. All major and minor keys. Enharmonic tonalities.

  • Artificial Major Scale

  • Chords derived from scales.

  • Major and minor pentatonic scales.

  • Mode change modulation.

  • Simple cadences: authentic, deceptive, plagal, and half cadence.

  • Nonharmonic tones: passing and neighbor tones.

Musical forms

  • Review of musical forms studied at the basic level.

  • Minuet (baroque style).

  • Chorale for piano (romantic style).

Contents of level B2

Rhythmic aspect

  • Review of rhythmic contents studied in the basic cycle and B1.

  • Polyrhythm 3/2 and 2/3.

  • Binary rhythmic cells in a part of the pulse.

  • Sextuplet, double triplet.

Melodic aspect

  • Review of the melodic contents studied in the basic level and B1.

  • Notes in the tenor clef (C in the fourth line).

Instrumental technique

  • Review of the contents of instrumental technique studied in the basic level and B1.

  • Chords in succession in the same hand.

  • Melody and chordal accompaniment in the same hand.

Expression technique

  • Review of expressive contents studied in the basic level and B1.

  • Piano touch.

  • Climax of phrase, section, and piece.

  • Dynamics and independent accentuations in each hand and in the same hand.

  • Agogics: rubato tempo.

  • Accentuation: sforzato (sf, sfz).

  • Ornamentation: trill and tremolo (modern style: classical and romantic).

  • Contrast of characters.

Harmonic aspect

  • Review of harmonic contents studied in the basic level and B1.

  • Nonharmonic notes: Appoggiatura. Accented and chromatic passing and neighbor tones.

  • Compound three- and four-part cadences.

  • Major and minor dominant ninth chord.

  • Dominant family chords.

  • Secondary dominant and diminished chord.

  • Simple harmonic progressions.

  • Common-chord modulation.

  • Modal scales: Doric, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian and Locrian.

Musical forms

  • Review of musical forms studied in the basic level and B1.

  • Rondo (classical style).

  • Prelude (baroque style).

Contents of level B3

Rhythmic aspect

  • Review of rhythmic contents studied in the basic cycle, B1, and B2.

  • Tuplets on fraction and grouping of pulses.

  • Septuplet.

  • Polyrhythm 4/3, 3/4, 5/2, and 2/5.

Melodic aspect

  • Review of the melodic contents studied in the basic cycle, B1, and B2.

  • Notes in soprano clef (C on the first line).

Instrumental technique

  • Review of instrumental technique contents studied in the basic level, B1, and B2.

  • Contrapuntal texture in independent hands.

Expression technique

  • Review of rhythmic aspects studied in the basic level, B1, and B2.

  • Ornaments in baroque style.

  • Use of expression resources as character configurators based on a musical or extra-musical concept or idea.

  • Adaptation of the articulation, dynamics (macro and micro), agogics, accentuations, and ornaments to the musical concept or idea depending on the information in the score.

Harmonic aspect

  • Review of harmonic contents studied in the basic level, B1, and B2.

  • Nonharmonic tones: anticipation, escape, and double neighbor tones.

  • Neapolitan major and minor scale. Neapolitan chord.

  • Modulation by harmonic progression with and without sequence.

  • Resolution of triad dominant, seventh dominant, mayor and minor dominant ninth chord, diminished, half-diminished, and diminished seventh chords in baroque, classical, and romantic style: upper (VII), and descending (IV, VI) leading tones.

  • Avoidance of parallel fifths and octaves.

  • Hungarian scale.

  • Hexatonic scale.

Musical forms

  • Review of musical forms studied in the basic level, B1, and B2.

  • Minuet with trio (classical style).

  • Sonata without development form (classical style).

  • Sonata allegro form (classical style).

  • Invention for two voices (J. S. Bach style).

Contents of level B4

Rhythmic aspect

  • Review of rhythmic contents studied in the basic level, B1, B2, and B3.

  • Additive meters.

  • Polyrhythm 5/3, 3/5, 7/2, 2/7, 7/3, 3/7, 7/4, 4/7.

  • Hemiola

Melodic aspect

  • Review of the melodic contents studied in the basic level, B1, B2, and B3.

  • Notes in mezzo-soprano clef (C in the second line) and bariton clef (F in the third line).

Instrumental technique

  • Review of instrumental technique contents studied in the basic level, B1, B2, and B3.

  • Contrapuntal texture in the same hand.

Expression technique

  • Review of expressive contents studied in the basic level, B1, B2, and B3.

  • Articulations: Selection criteria for articulations in the Baroque period based on the type of movement (conjunct and disjunct melodic motion), figuration (long or short values), and function of the bass (discursive, cadential degrees).

  • Dynamics: Selection criteria for dynamics in the Baroque period based on the musical form (soundness of the voice that carries the theme in the imitative counterpoint, dynamic sections in episodes and sequences, macro dynamic plan for the work).

  • Accentuation: Accentuation criteria in the Baroque period (syncopes, agogic accents, slurs in pairs of notes).

  • Ornaments: Recognition and interpretation of ornaments signs in the Baroque period.

Harmonic aspect

  • Review of harmonic contents studied in the basic level, B1, B2, and B3.

  • Nonharmonic tones: suspension (preparation, execution and descending resolution).

  • Italian, German, and French augmented sixth chord.

  • Chords of subdominant family.

  • Phrygian and Dorian half-cadence.

  • Modulation by enharmony: chord of diminished seventh and augmented sixth.

  • Treatment of perfect consonances in renaissance, baroque, classical, and romantic style: Avoidance of parallel and direct by leap fifths and octaves. Avoidance of leading tones doubling.

Musical forms

  • Review of musical forms studied in the basic level, B1, B2, and B3.

  • Invention for three voices (J. S. Bach style).

  • Free forms of romanticism: Mazurka, Song without words, Lyrical pieces.

  • Study on a technical mechanism for piano.

Advanced level objectives

Upon completion of the advanced level course, students will be prepared for:

  • Execution of major works for piano with solvency, technical and expressive precision, a careful reading of the score appropriate to the style, the composer, and the work, autonomy in resolving difficulties, and making informed decisions on the interpretation.

  • Execution of original works for piano, transcriptions, and orchestral reductions as a soloist, chamber, accompanist, or at first sight.

  • Execution of works with mental transposition of the key.

  • Written and mental reduction of works for diverse vocal and instrumental groups.

  • Correct use of methods and strategies for musical analysis and research.

  • Composition of works for solo instruments, vocal and instrumental groups, using traditional and experimental harmonic, contrapuntal, morphological, textural, and instrumental strategies synthesized from musical analysis.

  • Transcription and analysis of improvisations.

  • Improvisation in various styles and musical forms.

Contents of level C1

Harmony and Counterpoint

  • Stylistic resources of the Renaissance period: treatment of the modal system, clausula vera, use of accidentals, picardy third, treatment of imperfect and perfect consonances (avoidance of parallel and direct by leap fifths and octaves), and dissonances (contrapuntal treatment of passing, neighbor, and suspension tones), free imitation, invertible counterpoint to the eighth, tenth and twelfth, canon, imitation by direct, contrary, retrograde motion and by augmentation and diminution.

  • Stylistic resources of the Baroque period: treatment of the tonal system, subdominant and dominant family, cadences, dominant and tonic pedal, secondary dominant and diminished chords, modulation to a closely related key, diatonic and modulating progressions with and without sequence, common-chord modulation, basso continuo, Neapolitan chord and Italian augmented sixth, harmonic and contrapuntal treatment of dissonances.

Instrumentation

  • Extension and technical and expressive possibilities of human voices.

  • Extension and technical and expressive possibilities of string instruments.

Musical forms

  • Motet for two, three, and four voices in the Renaissance style of the 16th century.

  • Homophonic Chorale (J. S. Bach style).

  • Fugues in three voices, simple subject, chromatic subject, and modulating subject, with real, tonal, and plagal answers (J. S. Bach style).

  • Two-part Sonata (D. Scarlatti style).

  • Duo sonata for a melodic instrument (flute, violin) and continuo.

  • Concerto for keyboard and string (baroque style).

  • Recitative and aria da capo in baroque opera style.

Contents of level C2

Harmony and counterpoint

  • Stylistic resources of the classical period: common-chord modulation to distantly related keys. Contrast strategies and harmonic, thematic, and character development. Passing, neighbor, and suspensive resolution of chords. sensitive style.

Instrumentation

  • Extension and technical and expressive possibilities of woodwind and brass instruments, transposers, false transposers, and percussion.

Musical forms

  • Fugue in stretto (J. S. Bach style).

  • French suite (J. S. Bach style).

  • Piano Sonata in classical style (J. Haydn, W. A. Mozart, L. v. Beethoven).

  • Concerto for piano and orchestra (classical style).

  • String quartet in classical style and/or sonata for a chamber ensemble with piano (duo, trio, quartet, or quintet).

  • Symphony in classical style.

  • Recitative and opera aria in W. A. Mozart style.

Contents of level C3

Harmony and counterpoint

  • Stylistic resources of the romantic period: Exploration of harmonic color through the use of modulation to distantly related keys through enharmonic processes, mode change, functional ambiguity, modality, omnibus, and chords with altered tones.

Musical forms

  • Double, triple and/or canonical fugue (J. S. Bach style).

  • English suite (J. S. Bach style).

  • Structured or free-form work in romantic style (prelude, musical moment, waltz, novelette, nocturne, impromptu, polonaise, study, fantasy, ballad, rhapsody, or scherzo).

  • Piano Sonata in Romantic Style (F. Schubert, R. Schumann, J. Brahms).

  • Concerto for piano and orchestra (romantic style).

  • Symphony in romantic style.

  • Lied with piano in romantic style.

  • Recitative, aria, and cabaletta of opera in bel canto style.

Contents of level C4

harmony and counterpoint

  • Stylistic resources of the post-romantic period, nationalisms, the avant-garde, and the main currents of the 20th century:

  • Post-romantic strategies in the exploration of color and harmonic development through the avoidance of cadential resolution and tonal polarization.

  • Nationalisms: use of materials with rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic characteristics linked to regional folkloric and/or national motifs.

  • Impressionism: search for an atmosphere of harmonic imprecision through greater functional freedom, the use of modality, parallel fifths, and pentatonic or whole-tone scales.

  • Dodecaphonism: equalization in the hierarchy of the twelve sounds, following a serial order and avoiding references or tonal polarizations or the establishment of rhythmic patterns.

  • Neoclassicism: rational style, with references to the baroque and classicism, care in proportion, high contrapuntal development, dissonance and rhythm.

  • Polytonality: Superposition of melodic-harmonic schemes in different tonalities.

  • Integral serialism: compositional structuring through series of sounds, durations and dynamics.

  • Random music: Incorporation of chance and indeterminacy in the composition and performance processes.

  • Traditionally improvised genres: such as Jazz, with a stylistic use of swing, syncopation, polyrhythms, pauses, accentuation, chords with extensions, pentaphonic, modal and/or synthetic scales, and characteristic melodic turns in improvisation, or other genres, such as Blues, Rock, Bossa-Nova, Tango or various Folklore.

Musical forms

  • Partita (J. S. Bach style).

  • Fugue in classical, romantic and/or avant-garde style (W. A. Mozart, R. Schumann, P. Hindenmith).

  • Work in post-romantic, nationalist, impressionist, twelve-tone, impressionist, neoclassical, polytonal, serialist, random style.

  • Transcription of works in traditionally improvised styles (jazz, blues, rock, bossa-nova, tango, folklore) .

  • Piano sonata in post-romantic, avant-garde, and/or contemporary style (F. Liszt, A. Berg, P. Boulez).

  • Concert for piano and orchestra (post-romantic, avant-garde, and/or contemporary style).

  • Symphony or symphonic work in post-romantic style.

  • Lied with orchestra in post-romantic and/or avant-garde style.

  • Opera and/or symphonic choral scene linked to a post-romantic or later aesthetic.

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